Since the end of the Civil War in 2002, Angola has benefited from sustained economic growth fuelled by the exploitation of its vast reserves of natural resources. Per capita gross national income reached $4,580 in 2012 and Angola aims to make the transition to a middle-income country by 2018. Social indicators have also substantially improved over the last decade, however the majority of the population continues to have limited or no access to basic services and disparities, both in terms of income distribution and access to basic services are a major source of concern.
Despite the steady improvements in strengthening the country’s institutions, weak governance and institutions including human resource capacity, remain among the greatest challenges to the country’s harmonious development. Opportunities for children and civil society organisations to participate in decision making processes have improved slightly over time, but continue to remain constrained.
According to the latest available estimates, 37 per cent of Angolans reported monthly consumption that was below the national poverty line of $49. Age, level of education and the employment status of the head of the household, along with the number of household members, strongly correlate with the level of poverty.
ONLY 3 IN 10 CHILDREN ATTEND SECONDARY SCHOOL
EVERY YEAR 5,100 CHILDREN UNDER 14 ARE INFECTED WITH HIV
Income inequality is a major driver of poverty in Angola. With a Gini coefficient estimated at 0.54, Angola ranks as the fifth most unequal country in Africa. The extent of income inequality among the poor is low, meaning that high inequality is between those who are poor and those who are not.
Angola is prone to emergencies and natural disasters, such as drought or flooding, nutritional crises, and outbreaks of serious diseases like cholera, measles and malaria. In recent years, several of the country’s provinces experienced less than 60 per cent of the normal rainfall. This led to a drought that constrained agricultural production and severely affected the livelihood of an estimated 1,830,000 people. The impact of these emergencies is exacerbated by the low level of preparedness of public services, communities and families.
IN RURAL AREAS 7 IN 10 PEOPLE DON’T HAVE ACCESS TO TOILETS
1 IN 5 CHILDREN UNDER 5 SLEEPS UNDER AN INSECTICIDE-TREATED NET
While the availability of social sector data remains limited, social indicators are generally estimated to have substantially improved over the past few years, though at a slower pace than the overall economy. The government has indicated that better redistribution of domestic resources is one of its priorities. Close to one third of the total 2015 state budget was allocated to the social sectors but there is a need to focus on the improvement of spending patterns and ensure that allocations in social sectors are increasingly in line with stated development priorities.
The “11 Commitments for Angolan Children”, adopted in 2007, and monitored by the National Council for Children, remain the national umbrella for interventions related to children. The national policy and legal framework has been improving over the past years. Major developments include the new Constitution that recognizes human rights and obligations of duty bearers, and the approval of the Children’s Act (2012) and the Domestic Violence Act (2011). Also, a draft National Social Assistance Policy is awaiting approval by the Council of Ministers and lays solid foundations for strengthening and scaling up the coverage of social protection.
Effectively translating government stated priorities and key policies into action will provide a major contribution to advance equitable access to quality essential services. While advocating to drive forward change for Angolan children, UNICEF will continue to assist the Government of Angola during the next programme period (2015-2019) by expanding partnerships and providing technical assistance to decrease income and social inequalities and improve children’s well-being.
Gross national income per capita
Population living in poverty
Population under 18 years old
Mortality rate of children under 5 years old (per 1,000 live births)
Birth Registration of children under 5 years old
Net Secondary school enrolment
The overall aim of the country programme is to support governmental efforts to reduce disparities in social indicators with a special focus on the child population of Angola. To do so, the country programme pursues a systematic focus on interventions that have shown that they would potentially benefit the most vulnerable individuals, families and communities.
From 2015 to 2019, the country programme is being articulated through five programmes supported by two cross-cutting programme components. The five programmes gear their action towards improvements in three key areas that have emerged as possibly the most crucial for the country’s development agenda.
Prioritize interventions with proven capacity to decrease disparities reaching the most vulnerable families and children
The monitoring and evaluation of the country’s programme results, ensures that initiatives undertaken by UNICEF Angola contribute to the national priorities, the outcomes established by the United Nations Partnership Framework for Angola (UNPAF) and the goals of the post-2015 development agenda. UNICEF implements a Plan for Research, Impact Monitoring and Evaluation (PRIME) that includes major strategic surveys, evaluations and research products produced jointly by UNICEF, the government and other partners.
|Programme component||(In United States dollars)|
|Regular resources||Other resources||Total|
|Child survival and development||6 268 825||19 500 000||25 768 825|
|Water, sanitation and hygiene||1 979 658||2 400 000||4 379 013|
|Education||3 202 013||4 180 000||7 382 013|
|Child protection||3 046 673||15 035 000||18 081 673|
|Social policy and research||2 470 956||27 850 000||30 320 956|
|Communication||4 045 000||3 589 000||7 634 000|
|Planning, monitoring and evaluation||3 231 787||1 397 000||4 540 000|
|Cross-sectorial||8 222 588||2 070 000||10 292 588|
|Total||32 467 500||76 000 000||108 467 500|
* the amounts in this table are to be considered as indicative. Actual amounts will depend on the actual availability of UNICEF global resources and specific-purpose contributions from funding partners.
A balanced synergy between the following strategies is being pursued:
The most recent global estimates indicate that the mortality rate of children under 5 has decreased from 226 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990, to 157 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2015. Despite this decrease, Angola still has one of the highest under-5 mortality rates worldwide. Malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea are the major killers of children in Angola.
Maternal mortality remains a pressing public health issue in Angola. Less than half of pregnant women undergo four or more antenatal visits, and only 51 per cent of births occur in a health facility. Haemorrhage, hypertensive heart disease and infections are among the leading causes of maternal deaths; while absence of skilled birth attendance and the lack of access to health care are two of the underlying causes of maternal mortality. Malaria is a major cause of death and indeed an indirect cause of maternal death.
It is estimated that 4,834 children under 14 got infected with HIV in 2014. Access to services to prevent mother-to-child transmission are still poor; with only 5 in 10 HIV-positive pregnant women receiving ARV treatment to prevent the transmission of HIV to their children. Paediatric treatment is also limited, with just 14 per cent of HIV-positive children under the age of 14 currently receiving antiretroviral therapy.
Simple interventions can prevent most child deaths. For example, sleeping under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) can reduce overall child mortality by 20 per cent; washing hands with water and soap can reduce new-born deaths by 41 per cent and treatment of household water can reduce diarrhoeal diseases by 39 per cent. Addressing the challenges of raising basic health services for all children and enabling equitable access to improved high impact interventions is the way forward that will save Angolan children’s lives.
Child Survival and Development aims to achieve improved and equitable access to high-impact maternal and child health interventions, especially for the most vulnerable. This would help to reduce maternal and under-5 mortality rates as well as disparities in Angola.
While the government is responsible for policy implementation, UNICEF supports the Ministry of Health to ensure that policy and strategic orientation documents are available and operational. At the same time, the programme supports the planning, monitoring, evaluation and documentation of high-impact interventions for replication and scalability.
On a different level, UNICEF continues to provide technical assistance and work in the areas of maternal and neo-natal health, child health, HIV/AIDS and adolescent health, immunization and nutrition. It also supports capacity building and shares innovative evidence-based approaches to inform policies and strategies. Communication for development interventions are also instrumental in promoting life-saving behaviours.
Child Survival and Development also contributes towards an intersectoral initiative on prevention and response to violence against children as well as on promotion of early childhood development.
Support the Government of Angola developing adolescent, maternal and child-friendly policies, strategies and plans that address vulnerable groups and equity gaps:
Support the Government of Angola increasing and achieving equitable access and demand for quality maternal, new-born and integrated HIV services and interventions:
Support the Government of Angola strengthening national human and institutional capacity to provide child health, nutrition and immunization services:
Mortality rate of children under 5 years old (per 1,000 live births)
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)
Chronic under-nutrition of children under 5 years old
Under 5 years old sleeping under an insecticide-treated net
Children’s deaths caused by diarrhoea
The lack of access to safe water, sanitation and poor hygiene practices are a leading cause of infectious diseases, contributing both to under-nutrition and child mortality. At the moment, diarrhoea is a key reason for child mortality, causing 15 per cent of child deaths in Angola. Although coverage is expanding and is already quite high in urban areas, access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities remains low in rural areas. Many people in these areas still use high-risk surface water sources, such as rivers and lakes and they practice open defecation in the bush, risking the spread of water related diseases. Few households treat their water and hand washing is hardly practiced at all. Overall, the environment is conducive to the spread of infectious diseases.
The Water for All programme has been improving access to water in rural settings since 2007 but currently is facing huge sustainability and management challenges. Similarly, the introduction of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) has been galvanizing the sanitation subsector and faces similar challenges because of the lack of a clear road map with targets to end open defecation countrywide. Nevertheless, despite these difficulties, both programmes are bringing remarkable opportunities to improve the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene sector in Angola.
UNICEF’s supported Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Programme in Angola focuses on strengthening the national WASH legal framework and its operationalization through national and municipal plans and also budgeting. In this context, support to sector reviews, bottleneck/barrier analysis, data collection, monitoring and evaluation play a crucial role. It enhances the capacities of the sector’s institutions and provides access to quality and sustainable WASH services to people living in the most disadvantaged areas. On a community level, scaling up Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), together with the implementation of the Community Based Model for Water Points Management (MOGECA), will be key to ensure that at least 950,000 people have sustainable access to safe water and sanitation by 2019.
WASH also contributes to the cross-sectoral initiatives on prevention and response to violence against children as well as on promotion of early childhood development by working in synergy with other sectors when responding to emergencies.
Support the Government of Angola increasing the national capacity to implement and monitor sustainable WASH services:
Support the Government of Angola scaling up the innovative approach Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) providing high quality technical assistance to:
Assist population affected by emergencies increasing the number of families and children in humanitarian situations who access safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities.
Population defecating in open air
Population practising hand washing
Population practising household water treatment
Access to sanitation in schools
Population with access to safe water
Over the last decade Angola has made great strides forward in increasing access to education. The number of pupils and students enrolled in all levels of schooling increased from 2.2 million in 2001 to over 8 million in 2014. Significant improvements have also been achieved in literacy with 79.5 per cent in 2011 (for the age from 15 till 24 years) compared to 15 per cent in 1975.
However, further progress is required to tackle inequalities in access as well as to improve the quality of education. Primary education is officially free, but households pay various associated costs such as transport or uniforms. Consequently, poorer, rural children and those with specific needs are far less likely to be enrolled in school, especially at secondary level.
Only 9.3 per cent of children aged 3-5 are attending pre-school Early Childhood Education programmes. Transition rates from primary to secondary school are low and very few girls enrol into secondary school level, particularly in rural areas. In general, the quality of teaching is low, which results in limited learning. The education system is not yet efficient as many children have never gone to school or start primary school at a late age, don’t complete school, leave school or repeat classes.
UNICEF’s supported Education Programme for the period 2015-2019 has been designed in close collaboration with the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration. It is based on the national programme of Education for All, 2013-2020, and its goal is to support the government enhancing its capacity to increase equitable access for children to quality pre-primary, primary and first-cycle secondary education.
The programme is a mixture of ‘working on a national level’ in the area of policies, plans and strategies and ‘working in the field’. It aims to document and learn about the impact of policies, programmes or projects. It therefore includes several activities in selected provinces and municipalities as well as technical assistance to the Ministries mentioned above in terms of research, collecting evidence, policy formulation and strategic action planning. The purpose of this approach is to create a dialogue with policy and decision makers about the opportunities and challenges in delivering a truly equitable and quality education service to all children and to contribute to effective and innovative strategies and activities in the field that can be replicated in other parts of the country.
The programme also contributes to cross-sectoral initiatives on the prevention of and response to violence in and around schools and on the promotion of early childhood development.
Support the Government of Angola in strengthening its enabling environment to increase equitable access to schools, and enrolment of vulnerable children:
Support the Government of Angola increasing national capacity to improve the quality of teaching and advance learning results:
Support schools management improvement with active participation from parents:
Net Primary school enrolment
Net Secondary school enrolment
Gender parity for Primary school
Gender parity for Secondary school
Transition rate to Secondary school
Children are by nature more vulnerable than adults and thus need greater protection, but those who suffer the loss of parents, family breakdown, gender bias or disability are most at risk.
Almost 10 in 100 Angolan children are orphans but they account for only a small proportion of the over 1 million children who are not living with their biological parents. There is a widespread phenomenon of family break-up and many children live with extended families without any formal legal proceeding or social protection and assistance.
Children with disabilities are amongst the most vulnerable. Along with the inadequate provision and accessibility of specialized services in the country, the combination of disadvantage and discrimination creates a high risk of social exclusion. For example, almost half of the females with disabilities have never been to school.
In Angola, less than one third of children under 5 have had their birth registered. The lack of proof of legal identity and age hampers their access to essential services such as education. This absence of ID cards also hampers social workers and other bodies in their ability to protect children from violations of their rights such as underage marriage and exploitation through child labour. Nationwide, one in every five children aged 5 to 14 is involved in child labour and 7 per cent of girls aged 12-14 have already delivered their first baby.
The UNICEF supported ‘Child Protection Programme’ has been set up from 2015-2019 in 7 provinces of Angola and it aims to progressively secure an environment in which girls and boys are equally protected from violence, abuse, neglect and exploitation.
Linked to a broader rule of law, human rights and governance agenda, the programme is based on the comparative advantage of UNICEF in the area of child protection. With particular emphasis on ensuring increased access to legal identity and justice for children, the programme pivots around two interconnected approaches:
Child Protection also contributes to two cross-sectoral initiatives that will strengthen synergies between sectors: the prevention and response to violence against children and the promotion of early childhood development.
Support the Government of Angola increasing the national capacity to provide functional birth registration services and vital statistics:
Support the Government of Angola increasing the national capacity to provide access to quality justice services for children in contact with the law:
Children under 5 years old with birth registered
Orphan children of one or both parents
Females with disabilities who have ever been to school
Child labour in rural areas (5-14 years)
Girls aged 14-19 who have already delivered their first baby
Millions of Angolans have not been able to benefit from the rapid economic growth of recent years with an estimated 37 per cent of Angolans living below the national poverty line. Women and children are particularly vulnerable, especially those living in the most excluded rural areas. The effects of low participation in education, poor access to health care and under-nutrition during childhood echo through the adult years, diminishing well-being and productivity and resulting in serious long-term social and economic impacts.
A strong social protection system is fundamental in reducing the vulnerability of poor families and communities as it strengthens their livelihood conditions as well as their capacity to respond to shocks, while also increasing access to essential services. The current social protection system in Angola is weak and, to date, there is no large scale national programme in place able to effectively redistribute resources to the millions of Angolans who remain trapped in poverty. However, this may soon change; as the new National Social Assistance Policy (NSAP) awaits its final approval and both the Ministry of Social Assistance and Reintegration and the National Poverty Reduction Programme are engaging in strengthening and scaling up social protection programmes.
The challenge remains that of providing adequate human and financial resources and operational guidelines for the implementation of key policies and programmes to reduce poverty and build a more cohesive society.
UNICEF’s supported Social Policy and Research Programme focuses on improving policy environment and social protection systems for disadvantaged and excluded children and on generating evidence to support UNICEF policy advocacy work. The main areas of analysis and evidence generation include poverty reduction, access to social services, public finance management, climate change and the role of the private sector.
The programme supports the government’s efforts towards strengthening and expanding social assistance to the poorest and most vulnerable part of the population, ensuring that the government can benefit from the highly qualified technical assistance required to build a successful national system that takes advantage of the lessons learned in other countries.
The programme will also provide a specific contribution to a intersectoral initiatives on prevention and response to violence against children and on promotion of early childhood development.
Support the Government of Angola to strengthen the social protection institutional and operational framework and substantially scale up social protection services for vulnerable populations:
Generate quality evidence and data in sectors related to children’s rights for improved policy making and budgetary frameworks:
Children under 15 years old living in poverty
Population with no education living in poverty
Population employed in agriculture living in poverty
Households receiving some form of assistance
Households receiving some form of assistance from the government
Communicating effectively to large audiences and stakeholders is vital to ensure that child rights are part of the political agenda and that public and private sectors are informed and committed to improve the well-being of children in Angola.
Reinforcing positive behaviours in Angolan families, communities and children is equally crucial. There are major deficiencies in behaviours related to health, nutrition, safe water, hygiene, birth registration, early child development and justice for children, especially within the poorest communities.
Major problems include low levels of exclusive breastfeeding of children under six months, low levels of hand-washing and treatment of water for drinking, the cultural acceptance of open defecation and the lack of knowledge about malaria and HIV/AIDS. For example, around one third of the women aged 15-49 do not know that malaria is transmitted by mosquito bites and only 38 per cent can correctly identify two key ways of reducing the risk of HIV transmission. At the same time, less than 1 per cent of parents know the correct procedures to register their children and get a birth certificate. In addition to these factors, the cultural acceptance of child labour and corporal punishment plus the perception that studying has low returns in terms of future employment are factors that threaten children’s protection and education rights.
Communication plays a crucial role in providing knowledge and increasing local capacities to break down barriers and promote healthy, safe and protective behaviours. The adoption of positive behaviours and social norms demand the creation and acceptance of quality services in order to create a protective environment and fulfil children’s fundamental rights.
UNICEF’s Communication Programme integrates Public Advocacy, Partnerships and Resource Mobilization as well as Communication for Development.
The Programme reinforces communication on topics related to children’s rights and is driven by a need to change children’s lives for the better. Helping to consolidate the organization’s positioning as a knowledge hub, it strengthens and expands partnerships in support of actions specifically aimed at helping children.
Communication for Development focuses on strengthening the national capacity to make communication more effective and support individual and social changes. Using evidence as a basis, it mobilizes care givers, families, service providers and children through innovative communication methods that promote sustainable behavioural change with positive impact in the survival, development and protection of angolan children.
The programme also contributes to cross-sectoral initiatives on the prevention and response to violence against children and on the promotion of early childhood development.
Advocate children’s rights and build long-term partnerships:
Promote evidence-based behavioural and social change for child rights and child participation:
Population not treating water from unsafe sources before drinking
Women who do not know that malaria is caused by mosquito bites
Children under 6 months exclusively breastfed
Men who know two key ways to prevent HIV transmission
Women who do not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child
Cabinda | Luanda | Benguela | Cunene | Bié
Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation focuses on monitoring the implementation of UNICEF’s cooperation programme with the Government of Angola and tracking progress on key child rights indicators through regular routine information systems and other data collection exercises. The monitoring and evaluation of the country’s programme results ensures that initiatives undertaken by UNICEF Angola contribute to the national priorities as well as the outcomes established by the United Nations Partnership Framework for Angola (UNPAF) and the Sustainable Development Goals.
Collaborating with partners and supporting the Social Policy and Research programme to define and advance the research agenda for children is fundamental for evidence based programme planning and policy formulation. UNICEF implements a Plan for Research, Impact Monitoring and Evaluation (PRIME) that includes major strategic surveys, evaluations and research products produced jointly by UNICEF, the government and other partners. The PME Section oversees and provides quality assurance of all evaluations produced by UNICEF, making sure that appropriate evidence, recommendations and lessons learned are considered in the programmes.
Increase UNICEF Angola capacity to monitor child-rights issues ensuring that data on key child rights indicators is regularly available through routine information systems:
Improve the performance monitoring system of the programmes supported by UNICEF Angola:
Improve the National Evaluation Capacity Development (NECD) through the support of other UN Agencies reaching public institutions:
By 2019, most vulnerable children, adolescents and women of child bearing age will have less common preventable illnesses and disease conditions thanks to more:
By 2019, most vulnerable boys, girls and families have access to appropriate water and sanitation facilities and live in open-defecation free communities.
By 2019, the government has enhanced its capacity to ensure that also vulnerable children have access to and complete quality and inclusive primary and first cycle secondary education, with a focus on improving learning outcomes.
By 2019, the most vulnerable boys, girls and adolescents will benefit from accessible, equitable, high quality child protection services, including birth registration, response to violence, abuse, exploitation and neglect and child-friendly justice.
By 2019, the most vulnerable boys and girls will have increased access to social assistance programmes, through improved policy environment and social protection systems:
By 2019, leading decision makers will have increased knowledge about child-rights issues and children and caregivers will have positive behaviours around infant and maternal care, child protection, participation and social protection.
By 2019, the Government of Angola will have increased national capacity to monitor and evaluate child-rights issues improving its monitoring and evaluation practices.